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Hakim Health Sys Res 2010, 13(1): 11-18 Back to browse issues page
Correlation between Distress Tolerance and Emotional Regulation With Students Smoking Dependence
Abstract:   (32786 Views)


  Azizi A * 1 (MSc), Mirzaei A2 (BS), Shams J3 (MD)


  1 Department of Psychology, Allame Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

  2 Department of Psychology, Payamenoor University, Karaj, Iran

  3 Department of Psychiatry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


  Received: 4 Sep 2009, Accepted: 25 Apr 2010





Introduction: Cigarette is the most common and cheapest addictive substance associated with physical, financial, familial and social harm. Khantezian self-medication hypothesis proposes that many people smoke because of low distress tolerance and emotional dysregulation. However, there is no research concerning this issue in Iran. The present study aims at analyzing the relation among distress tolerance, emotional regulation and smoking dependence.

Methods: 118 male smoker students from University of Tehran were chosen as samples. They were B.A. students of psychology, Law and Political Science fields being 18 to 27 years old. The rate of smoking dependence among them was assessed by Fagerstrome Nicotine Dependence Test (FTND). The distress tolerance rate and emotional regulation was also assessed by Simons and Gaher Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). The data was analyzed by analysis of variances, multiple regression and Pearson`s correlation coefficient.

Results: There was a significant negative correlation between distress tolerance rate of the students and their nicotine dependence (r=-0.711, p<0.01). There was also a significant positive correlation between the students’ emotional dysregulation and their nicotine dependence (r=0.856, p<0.01). The results indicated that lack of emotional clarification, difficulties in impulse control and appraising and absorbing distress, predict a significant percent of dependence variance (p<0.01).

Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between distress tolerance, emotional regulation and smoking dependence. The results are parallel with the addiction self-medication theory.


  Key words: Stress Psychological, Affective Symptoms, Substance-Related Disorders, Students

  Hakim Research Journal 2010 13(1): 11- 18.


  * Corresponding Author: Hemmat EXP, Olympic Square, Allameh Tabatabaei University, School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98- 0912- 4452679, Fax: +98- 21-77322866, Email: azizi.psy1@gmail.com

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Type of Study: Original |
Received: 2010/07/13
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Correlation between Distress Tolerance and Emotional Regulation With Students Smoking Dependence . Hakim Health Sys Res . 2010; 13 (1) :11-18
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Volume 13, Issue 1 (4-2010) Back to browse issues page
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